Submarine Warfare in WWI

WWI marked the beginning of submarine warfare as well as the end of unrestricted submarine warfare. The infamous Unterseeboot of World War I were a technological marvel of the time; however, their true impact is debatable. The U-boats of World War I were unreliable and dangerous to the submarine commanders, which made it difficult to sink wartime supply ships traveling in a convoy. U-boats had a reputation for being strong and unsinkable, but of all 375 of the U-boats commissioned during the war, only 242 came back. Although U-boats were used as a propaganda tool to recruit troops, they were never a substantial threat to the allies.
The UB 46 was sunk by a mine on 7 Dec 1916 in the Bosphorus. Today you can see her in the Naval museum in Istanbul.
The UB 46 was sunk by a mine on 7 Dec 1916 in the Bosphorus. Today you can see her in the Naval museum in Istanbul.

The dangers of U-boats to themselves were well known, which many soldiers had lost their lives to occupational hazards as well as poorly designed areas of the submarines. Andrew, a diver who was involved in uncovering the locations of where UB41 and UB75 sank, can recall what crews said about the early U-boats. "The early submariners of World War One were true pioneers of submarine warfare, especially on this scale. These vessels were hard mistresses to the crew and officers alike, often referred to as ‘iron coffins’ or ‘sisters of sorrow," said Andrew in an interview with the BBC. The Crew of U-boats working in the engine rooms, as well as those who set up undersea mines were responsible for the safety of the ship while working in dangerous or adverse conditions. Submarines during WW1 were usually very damp making a perfect breeding ground for germs. This led to many crews on U-boats developing sicknesses such as influenza and other diseases. This led to the U-boats inability to be used as a reliable weapon.

WWI German U-boat
WWI German U-boat
Almost a year after the war started, both the allies and axis had not thought that the war could be won quickly, and they began to seek new strategies in order to gain an advantage. Both sides were desperate for a new plan, but the British had made the first move by overpowering the German navy and starting a blockade on German ports. The blockade was unusually restricted and had even considered food "contraband of war". This led to great controversy all over, including the U.S. The Germans thought of this as the British trying to starve the German people into forfeiting the war early; as a result, German leaders had put into place a new system of unrestricted submarine warfare where the German U-boats could sink almost any ship they want to. Unfortunately for the Germans, the blockade on their ports was more effective than the deployment of the U-boats. Unrestricted submarine warfare was a direct result of the blockade on Germany and the start of the infamous rise of the U-boat.

Secondly, the effects of U-boats were widely overstated. The U-boats were successful for most of the war, but didn't have near the impact of what it did to the morale of the allied navies. The U-boat were able to sink 560,000 tons by March and in April 1917, and when the USA entered the war it had reached its peak with 860,000 tons. In May, however, the numbers that the British gave about the sunk tonnage dropped to 616-thousand tons when the British navy finally developed measures to help counter the U-boat - the convoy system. The convoy system was when merchant ships traveled in groups across the Atlantic Ocean, assisted by naval ships. Great Britain's lie about the sunk tonnage is an example of how they used propaganda to overstate the problem in order get the United States involved in the war. The newly formed convoys were a deterrent to U-boat threats and effectively ended the U-boat campaign. As a scare tactic - U-boats were second to none.

A WWII convoy similar to the convoys during WWI.
A WWII convoy similar to the convoys during WWI.

The convoy system was what ultimately caused the U-boat successes to stop. U-boats although stealthy were vulnerable when detected. U-boats would routinely surface and were easily attacked by gunfire. U-boats couldn't counter the large fleets of ships sailing together assisted by warships despite the best efforts and tactics devised by naval commanders. This effectively ended the U-boat campaign because when they no longer were able to proliferate unrestricted submarine warfare.

U-boats had great potential at the beginning of the war. If Germany had continued to build and develop tactics and technology, they would be able to have constructed a blockade that would cut off supplies to the allies. At the time there weren't enough supplies to build a larger fleet of U-boats and not enough resources dedicated to the advancement of the U-boat program. The U-boat worked more effectively as a way to demoralize the navies of Britain, but they weren't a war decider.

Gusten, Emanuel. "Fighting the U-boats." Fighting the U-boat threat. 3 Dec. 2008 <>.
William Grimes. New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)). New York, N.Y.: May 31, 2006. p. E.1

Carl Racy, Inside Out - North East & Cumbria: Monday September 8, 2003 “

Assignment: Do memories hinder or help people in their effort to learn from the past and succeed in the present? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.
Memories act as both a help and a hinderance to the success of someone. Many people advise you to learn from the past and apply those memories so that you can effectively succeed by avoiding repeating your past mistakes. On the other hand, people who get too caught up with the past are unable to move on to the future.

Elie Wiesel's memoir Night perfectly exemplifies the double nature of memories. Wiesel, a Jewish man, suffered heavily throughout the Holocaust and Night is rife with horrific descriptions of his experience. These memories help to spread the view of what life was like. Through recounting these memories, Wiesel is able to educate world readers about the atrocities committed in hopes that the same blatant violations of human rights are never repeated again. Through reliving the Holocaust through his writing, Wiesel was inspired to become proactive in the battle for civil rights. Some would point to his peaceful actions and the sales of his book and label him a success.

Despite the importance of recounting such memories, Wiesel acknowledges the damage that memories can also cause. Following his liberation from the Auschwitz concentration camp, Wiesel was a bitter, jaded man. He could not even write Night until several years later. The end of the novel describes Wiesel's gradual but absolute loss of faith throughout the experience. His past experiences haunted him for several years, rendering him passive. It was not until he set aside his past that he could even focus on the future. Had he remained so consumed with the pain and damage caused in the past, he may never have achieved the success that he has attained.

Overall, Wiesel's experiences exemplify the importance of the past as a guide. Wiesel's past experiences helped to guide him in later life, but it was not until he pushed them aside that he could move on. To me this means that you should rely on your past without letting it control you. Allow your past to act as a guide, while making sure that you are also living in the present and looking to the future.

- This essay deserves a four. This essay doesn't deserve a five or six because it is not very opinionated. Memories act as both a help and a hinderence is not a strong thesis, and the following avenues of approach were not focused. Grammar is also pretty static with no semicolons or variety of syntax. Appropriate grammar was used throughout the essay, but no higher level vocabulary was used.

Benito MussoliniMussolini_biografia.jpg

Benito Mussolini, the man who started fascism in Italy, was a powerful and calculative man. He was a journalist and World War I veteran in the Italian Army who reached the rank of Corporal, the same rank Hitler had achieved. Mussolini’s rise to power started after his was discharged from the army due to shrapnel wounds in the trench; he continued his career as a journalist putting out what is now known as fascist ideas that criticized the now failing government (History Guide, P.7) The economy in Italy was shattered and there were protests being held. On March 23, 1919, Mussolini and several other veterans formed the National Fascist Party (Commando Supremo Pa. 3) This party grew in popularity among the people of Italy, who were disenchanted with the ineffectiveness of the withstanding government. Everyone would then believe that he had all the answers and appoint him ‘il duce’ or ‘leader’ of Italy. This was because of a revolution caused by the turmoil after the war (History Guide, P.5). When World War II came around Italy was to join Hitler in the war against the allies; Hitler modeled Germany's government after Mussolini and fascism. He made territorial demands in three different countries and was thought of as a threat to the allies. His fall came when he war arrested by the Italian police. Mussolini, realizing he was going to killed, opened up his shirt and asked to be shot in the chest (commando supremo, p10).
Mussolini and child
Mussolini and child

Benito Mussolini after his rise to power
Benito Mussolini after his rise to power

Works Cited

""Il Duce"" Ed. James Heddlesten. 6 Feb. 2009. <>

Seconda Guerra Mondiale; Vol 1, Mussolini in Pictures From the Lowe Family Archives, Il Duce, The Rise and Fall of Benito Mussolini; Richard B. Lyttle. 1987

Herman Finer, Mussolini's Italy (1935), p. 218; quoted in Franklin Le Van Baumer, ed., Main Currents of Western Thought (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978), p.748.


Directions: Today you are going to take part of the High School Proficiency Assessment for Language Arts Literacy. The assessment contains different types of text and different activities. In the first part of the test, you will look at a picture and then complete a writing task. In this activity, you have an opportunity to demonstrate how well you can organize and express your ideas in written text. Refer to the Writer's Checklist of important points to remember as you write. Educators who read your writing will consider these important points when they read and score your writing.
You Will have 30 minutes to complete the writing task. Take a Few Minutes to think about the task and to plan what you want to say before you begin to write. You may use the prewriting/planning space to plan your text, but your prewriting will not be scored. Only your writing on the lined pages of your answer sheet will be scored. Do your best to make your writing clear and well organized. Keep your purpose in mind as your write and use your checklist.
You must use a No. 2 pencil. You may either print or write your final copy. You may not use a dictonary or any other reference materials during the test. However, you may use the Writer's Checklist. If you finish before the time is called, review what you have written using the Writer's Checklist to read critically and improve what you have written.

external image 27876848.Extra20040412Img_4271Sousaphone.jpg


Directions: In this part of the test, you will red a narrative passage and then respond to the multiple-choice and open-ended questions that follow it. You may look back at the passage and make notes in the margin if you like, but you must record your answers on your answer sheet.
You Will have 50 minutes for this part of the test.

Primates Aren’t PetsPublished: February 24, 2009
The recent chimpanzee attack in Stamford, Conn., was a tragedy for the woman who was horribly mauled. It was also a reminder that primates should not keep other primates as pets. The obvious reason is the danger involved. No matter how tame they may sometimes appear, chimpanzees are vastly stronger than most people realize. And no matter how socialized a chimpanzee seems, it is still in exile from its kind, its way of being.Travis, the 200-pound chimp in Stamford who was shot and killed by police, was marginally legal. Had his owner registered him — as required in Connecticut for primates over 50 pounds — he would have been fully legal. But Travis had been exempted, largely for good behavior. At present, there may be as many as 15,000 primate pets in the United States. Only 20 states prohibit keeping them as pets, and there is no federal law against it. But there may soon be a law that makes it much harder to obtain them.
On Tuesday, the House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved the Captive Primate Safety Act, which would ban the interstate transport of primates as pets. The Senate should quickly follow. The legislation poses no risk to federally licensed facilities, such as zoos and wildlife sanctuaries.
Unfortunately, chimpanzees are only a small part of the global exotic pet trade, which is fueled by greed, curiosity and a misplaced, often wildly sentimental interest in animals. It’s only natural to feel empathy for a chimp that has been orphaned, one way or another, into the human world. But chimps belong with other chimps — in proper wildlife sanctuaries — and not living as if they were nearly human among humans.

12) The author stated that 15,000 primates are pets in the United States. Do you think it is a constitutional right to own an animal without government regulation? If you were in congress, would you create a law against owning one? Use evidence to support your argument.

13) The author claims that chimps should live with other chimps and not humans, yet they are only a small part of the exotic pet trade. Do you support the right to own or collect animals as long as they are treated well?

Steven D’Amaro

12.I think that you should have to register the animal in order to own it, especially after the chimpanzee attack. If I had the ability to create a law against owning exotic pets, I would not. Instead I would implement a law that requires registration for the animals. The article states that this plan is already implemented in several states and would require little change in the laws. I would however require all pet owners to be responsible for their pets.

13.I do support the right to own pets on the condition they are registered and kept accountable for at all times. Most exotic pets require special treatment, and in order to keep the pet the owner should be able to provide all the necessary care that the pet needs. Regardless of whether or not the chimps make up a small part of the exotic pet trade, they should still be legal.


Directions: In this part of the test, you will read a persuasive passage and then respond to the multiple-choice and open-ended questions that follow it. You may look back at the passage and make notes in the margin if you like, but you must record your answers on your answer sheet.
You Will have 50 minutes for this part of the test.

From "Hub Fans Bid Kid Adieu"

by John Updike
The afternoon grew so glowering that in the sixth inning the arc lights were turned on--always a wan sight in the daytime, like the burning headlights of a funeral procession. Aided by the gloom, Fisher was slicing through the Sox rookies, and Williams did not come to bat in the seventh. He was second up in the eighth. This was almost certainly his last time to come to the plate in Fenway Park, and instead of merely cheering, as we had at his three previous appearances, we stood, all of us, and applauded. I had never before heard pure applause in a ballpark. No calling, no whistling, just an ocean of handclaps, minute after minute, burst after burst, crowding and running together in continuous succession like the pushes of surf at the edge of the sand. It was a sombre and considered tumult. There was not a boo in it. It seemed to renew itself out of a shifting set of memories as the Kid, the Marine, the veteran of feuds and failures and injuries, the friend of children, and the enduring old pro evolved down the bright tunnel of twenty-two summers toward this moment. At last, the umpire signalled for Fisher to pitch; with the other players, he had been frozen in position. Only Williams had moved during the ovation, switching his bat impatiently, ignoring everything except his cherished task. Fisher wound up, and the applause sank into a hush.
Understand that we were a crowd of rational people. We knew that a home run cannot be produced at will; the right pitch must be perfectly met and luck must ride with the ball. Three innings before, we had seen a brave effort fail. The air was soggy, the season was exhausted. Nevertheless, there will always lurk, around the corner in a pocket of our knowledge of the odds, an indefensible hope, and this was one of the times, which you now and then find in sports, when a density of expectation hangs in the air and plucks an event out of the future.
Fisher, after his unsettling wait, was wide with the first pitch. He put the second one over, and Williams swung mightily and missed. The crowd grunted, seeing that classic swing, so long and smooth and quick, exposed. Fisher threw the third time, Williams swung again, and there it was. The ball climbed on a diagonal line into the vast volume of air over center field. From my angle, behind third base, the ball seemed less an object in flight than the tip of a towering, motionless construct, like the Eiffel Tower or the Tappan Zee Bridge. It was in the books while it was still in the sky. Brandt ran back to the deepest corner of the outfield grass, the ball descended beyond his reach and struck in the crotch where the bullpen met the wall, bounced chunkily, and vanished.
Like a feather caught in a vortex, Williams ran around the square of bases at the center of our beseeching screaming. He ran as he always ran out home runs--hurriedly, unsmiling, head down, as if our praise were a storm of rain to get out of. He didn’t tip his cap. Though we thumped, wept, and chanted "We want Ted" for minutes after he hid in the dugout, he did not come back. Our noise for some seconds passed beyond excitement into a kind of immense open anguish, a wailing, a cry to be saved. But immortality is nontransferable. The papers said that the other players, and even the umpires on the field, begged him to come out and acknowledge us in some way, but he refused. Gods do not answer letters.

Directions for open-ended questions 13 and 14: Write your response in the space provided on the answer sheet.
14. Did the author talk about Ted Williams in an opinionated way
  • Why does he say that "immortality is non-transferable"?
  • Does the article show Ted Williams as a hero or as someone who refuses to speak to his fans?
15. At the end the author states "God does not answer letters", what does this mean?
  • The author often uses metaphors to describe the actions of Ted Williams, use two separate examples to show the author's opinion on Ted.

14. John Updike says that immortality isn’t transferable because people have to earn it. They have to have done something good to earn the right to be a god, in order to be immortal, however, you have to do something great. I think the article shows Ted Williams as a hero. Although he doesn’t want to respond to his fans, he is simply being modest.

15. When the author says “god does not answer letters” he is showing how modest Ted Williams is and that he is not a man who addresses his fans, no matter how much applause he receives. The comparison of Ted Williams to a god is a good one, it shows that modesty and honest playing is still a way to get written down as one of the greatest baseball players in history. The author clearly has a high opinion of Ted, referring to someone as a god shows just how high John’s opinion is of Ted Williams.
On February 1, 1960, a group of black college students from North Carolina A&T University refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina where they had been denied service. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC (pronounced "snick"), was created on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh two months later to coordinate these sit-ins, support their leaders, and publicize their activities. This sparked a wave of other sit-ins in college towns across the South.
Hippies and Counterculture Narrativeexternal image youngHippieKen.jpg
The hippie movement developed out of dissatisfied student communities around Stanford and Berkeley as well as in San Francisco's beat generation poets and jazz hipsters, who rejected the ideas and morals of the middle-class. The movement eventually became so large that is spread around the world. It is uncertain when the word hippie was coined, but it was used to describe anyone who took place in this movement. The word hippie derives from hipster, and was initially used to describe people who created their own communities, listened to rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as cannabis and the new drug, LSD. In January 1967 Hippie culture was united under the Human Be-In . The Human Be-In was perfect example of 1960s counterculture . During this event they focused rejecting institution, communal living, ecological awareness, and higher consciousness (which many Hippies achieved through LSD). Throughout the late 1960's many people were influenced by the Hippie culture. As the number of Hippies in the United States grew so did the things it influenced; soon clothes, music, television, movies even food took some cues from the culture of hippies.

One major event that sprung hippies into action was the Vietnam War . Hippie’s fought the Vietnam War for 4 years and finally succeeded in stopping it. Hippies believed that all problems should be solved peacefully, even though their protests did turn violent. Hippies wanted their values to be shared throughout the entire world, so by protesting the war they are protecting their way of life.


After many shocking turns hippies waned off simply because their peace loving and free lifestyle was being corrupted by drugs and fighting. A low point for these problems took place during a Rolling Stones concert when 18 year old Meredith Hunter was stabbed and killed during a rolling stones performance. After Charles Manson was accused of killing two people, many Hippies were tired of being stereotyped as druggies and felt that the culture they once had was getting out of hand. Some younger people argue that hippies "sold out" during the 1980s and became part of the materialist, consumer culture. Even though during the 1970s the number of hippies decreased dramaticly, hippie culture has never died out completely: hippies and neo-hippies can still be found on college campuses, on communes, and at gatherings and festivals. Many still embrace hippie values of peace, love, and community.